What Causes Acne?

Causes of Acne

Acne is a common skin condition that occurs when hair follicles become clogged with oil, dead skin cells, and bacteria. The exact cause of acne is not fully understood, but several factors contribute to its development:

  1. Excess oil production: The sebaceous glands in the skin produce an oily substance called sebum, which helps lubricate the skin. Sometimes, these glands produce too much oil, leading to clogged pores and acne breakouts.
  2. Dead skin cells: The skin naturally sheds dead skin cells, but in individuals with acne-prone skin, these cells can accumulate and mix with the excess oil, blocking the hair follicles.
  3. Bacteria: The skin is inhabited by a bacterium called Propionibacterium acnes (P. acnes). When the hair follicles are clogged, P. acnes can multiply, leading to inflammation and the formation of acne lesions.
  4. Hormonal changes: Hormonal fluctuations, particularly during puberty, menstrual cycles, or hormonal imbalances, can trigger increased oil production, leading to acne. Androgens, a type of hormones, can stimulate the sebaceous glands.
  5. Genetics: Acne can run in families, suggesting a genetic component. If your parents or close relatives had acne, you may be more prone to developing it.
  6. Certain medications: Some medications, such as corticosteroids, androgenic steroids, or certain anticonvulsants, can contribute to acne development as a side effect.
  7. Environmental factors: Exposure to certain environmental elements, such as pollutants, humidity, and high levels of humidity, can aggravate acne in susceptible individuals.

It’s important to note that while these factors contribute to the development of acne, different individuals may have different triggers or combinations of factors that lead to their acne breakouts. Consulting with a dermatologist can help determine the underlying causes of your acne and guide you toward appropriate treatment options.

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