Why TB Causes?

Why TB Causes?

Tuberculosis (TB) is a contagious bacterial infection primarily caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis. It most commonly affects the lungs but can also affect other parts of the body, such as the brain, spine, and kidneys. TB is typically transmitted from person to person through the air, usually when someone with active TB coughs, sneezes, or talks, releasing tiny infectious droplets into the air that can be inhaled by others.

The development of TB involves a combination of factors:

  1. Exposure to Infectious Droplets: The primary mode of transmission is through the inhalation of airborne droplets containing Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Close and prolonged contact with an infected person who is actively coughing or sneezing is a common way to become exposed to the bacteria.
  2. Immune System Response: After inhaling the bacteria, the immune system typically responds by activating immune cells to surround and contain the bacteria within the lungs. In many cases, the immune response is successful in preventing the bacteria from causing active disease. However, in some individuals, the bacteria can evade the immune response and establish an infection.
  3. Latent TB Infection: When the immune system contains the bacteria but does not completely eliminate it, a person may develop latent TB infection. In latent TB, the bacteria remain inactive within the body and do not cause symptoms. However, they can become active and cause disease later if the person’s immune system becomes weakened.
  4. Active TB Disease: Active TB disease occurs when the bacteria become active and multiply within the body, leading to symptoms and potentially spreading the infection to other individuals. Factors that can increase the risk of latent TB infection progressing to active TB disease include a weakened immune system (e.g., HIV infection, certain medical conditions, medications), malnutrition, and other underlying health issues.

It’s important to note that not everyone exposed to Mycobacterium tuberculosis will develop active TB disease. Many people with latent TB infection remain asymptomatic and do not progress to active disease. However, for those who do develop active TB, early diagnosis and treatment are crucial to prevent the spread of the infection and to ensure effective management.

TB is a global health concern, and efforts to control and eliminate TB involve strategies such as screening, testing, treatment, and improving living conditions. If you suspect you have been exposed to TB or are experiencing symptoms such as persistent cough, fever, weight loss, and fatigue, it’s important to seek medical attention for proper diagnosis and treatment.