Hernia: Types, Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors and Diet

Hernia: Types, Symptoms, Causes, Risk Factors and Diet

A hernia is a protrusion of an organ or part of the body through the wall of the cavity that normally contains it. In most cases, a hernia occurs when some type of tissue pushes through a weakened section in muscle or other tissue, such as an inguinal hernia.

A hernia can be surgically repaired with surgery. The decision to have surgery for a hernia depends on many factors including the size and location of the hernia, your age and general health, and whether you have any other medical problems.

Types of Hernia

The most common forms of hernia are:

1. Inguinal Hernias:

Inguinal hernias occur when fatty tissue or a part of your bowel pokes through into your groin at the top of your inner thigh. This is the most common type of hernia and it mainly affects men. It’s often associated with ageing and repeated strain on the tummy.

2. Femoral Hernias:

Femoral hernias also happen when fatty tissue or part of your bowel pokes through into your groin at the top of your inner thigh.

They’re much less common than inguinal hernias and tend to affect more women than men. Like inguinal hernias, femoral hernias are also associated with ageing and repeated strain on the tummy.

3. Umbilical Hernias

Umbilical hernias occur when fatty tissue or part of your bowel pokes through your tummy near your belly button. This type of hernia can occur in babies if the opening in the tummy that the umbilical cord passes through does not seal properly after birth. Adults can also be affected, possibly as a result of repeated strain on the tummy.

4. Hiatus hernias

Hiatus hernias occur when part of the stomach pushes up into your chest by squeezing through an opening in the diaphragm, the thin sheet of muscle that separates the chest from the tummy. This type of hernia may not have any noticeable symptoms, although it can cause heartburn in some people.

It’s not exactly clear what causes hiatus hernias, but it may be the result of the diaphragm becoming weak with age or pressure on the tummy.

Other types of hernias include:

  • Incisional hernia: Tissue protrudes through the site of an abdominal scar from a remote abdominal or pelvic operation.
  • Epigastric hernia: Fatty tissue protrudes through the abdominal area between the navel and lower part of the sternum (breastbone).
  • Spigelian hernia: The intestine pushes through the abdomen at the side of the abdominal muscle, below the navel.
  • Diaphragmatic hernia: Organs in the abdomen move into the chest through an opening in the diaphragm.


A hernia is a protrusion of an organ or part of the body through the muscle or other tissue that normally contains it.

The most common symptom of a hernia is pain in the groin, abdomen, or scrotum. Other symptoms may include:

  • Numbness and tingling in the groin area
  • Painful bowel movements
  • Stomach pain
  • Difficulty breathing
  • Feeling like something is coming out of your vagina when you
    • cough
    • sneeze
    • laugh
    • exercise


Hernia is a disease that occurs when an organ (usually the bowel) becomes trapped in the area of the body where it should not be. This causes a swelling and sometimes pain.

The most common cause of a hernia is trauma, such as falling on something or a direct blow to the abdomen. Other causes for this condition may include:

  • A congenital abnormality of the abdominal wall
  • Obesity
  • Pregnancy
  • Nerve damage caused by cancer treatments
  • Laparoscopic surgery

The most common cause of hernia is an injury to the groin or abdomen that pushes the intestine through a weak spot in the muscle wall. Hernias can also be caused by age-related changes in muscle tone and elasticity.

Risk Factors

Hernia is a condition where an organ or other body part protrudes through the muscle wall. Hernia can affect any part of the body, including the abdomen, groin, chest, and neck.

There are many risk factors for hernia disease. Some of these risk factors are

  • Age: As we age our connective tissue becomes weaker and less elastic which can lead to hernia.
  • Gender: Men are more likely to get a hernia than women due to their anatomy
  • Obesity: Being overweight or obese increases your risk of hernia because it puts pressure on your abdomen and causes weakness in the abdominal muscles. It’s been found that obesity increases the risk of hernia by three times as much.
  • Smoking: Smoking also increases your risk of getting a hernia because it weakens connective tissue.
  • Family history: The family history is one of the most important risk factor for Hernia Disease. It is a genetic disorder that can be inherited from parents. It can also be caused by a genetic mutation in the X chromosome, which may lead to an increased risk of developing Hernia Disease in males.
  • Previous injury: A previous injury can be a risk factor for developing Hernia Disease. The risk of hernia is increased in people who have had an injury to the abdominal area, such as a car accident or sports injury.

It is important to know the risk factors for hernia disease so that it can be prevented.


The diet for Hernia Disease is mostly based on what you can and cannot eat. The most important thing to avoid is fatty foods because they can lead to constipation which will in turn put pressure on the hernia, making it worse.

Some of the foods that you should avoid for Hernia Disease are:

  • High-fiber foods: High fiber foods such as whole-wheat bread and cereals, fruits, vegetables, beans and lentils – these foods may cause more gas to build up in your gut.
  • Sugary drinks: These drinks increase the risk of having bowel movements that are hard to control.
  • Alcoholic beverages: These beverages may lead to diarrhea or constipation which can worsen your hernia symptoms.
  • Spicy foods: Spicy foods like Mexican food, Thai food, and Indian food can lead to gas or bloating.
  • Raw vegetables: Vegetables that are raw can pose a risk of infection due to their high content of bacteria.


  1. The patient should drink plenty of fluids and avoid foods that can worsen the condition.
  2. The patient should eat small, frequent meals to stay hydrated.
  3. The patient should eat foods that are low in fat and high in fiber.


Hernia is a condition where an organ or tissue moves out of its normal position and into another part of the body. Hernia can affect any part of the digestive system, including the stomach, intestines and colon.

If you think you have a hernia, don’t wait to seek help. A neglected hernia can grow larger and more painful, this can lead to complications and possibly emergency surgery. 

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