High Blood Pressure (Hypertension): Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

High blood pressure, or hypertension, is a condition in which the pressure of blood against the walls of your arteries is too high. High blood pressure usually doesn’t have any symptoms. As a result, many people don’t know they have it.

WHO defines hypertension is a condition in which systolic pressure exceeds 160 mm Hg and diastolic pressure exceeds 95 mm Hg. With diastolic pressures of 100 or more therapy should be initiated with drugs as well as diet. High blood pressure is not a disease but only a symptom indicating that some underlying disease is progressing.

The World Health Organization has estimated that high blood pressure causes one in every 8 deaths world wide making hypertension the third leading killer in the world. Every individual has blood pressure which is necessary to move blood through arteries and provide oxygen to the tissues of the body.

Hypertension impairs the pumping function of heart and if untreated damages heart, brain and kidneys. A stroke occurs more often in patients with high blood pressure.


  • Mild blood pressure: Diastolic pressure is 90 to 104 mm Hg. Treatment is based on weight loss, sodium restriction and behavioral techniques.
  • Moderate blood pressure: Diastolic pressure is 105 to 119 mm Hg with moderate blood pressure or hypertension. Nutritional therapy is supported by drugs such as beta blockers.
  • Severe blood pressure: Diastolic pressure is 120 to 130 mm Hg and above. Apart from giving treatment for moderate hypertension peripheral vasodilators are given. Diet therapy resolves around potassium replacement and nutritional support for weight management and sodium modification.

When the cause of blood pressure is unknown, it is called as essential blood pressure.


High blood pressure is a condition in which the pressure of the blood against the walls of the arteries is higher than normal. Many persons with hypertension have no symptoms.

The symptoms of high blood pressure are:

  • Headache
  • Impaired vision
  • Failing memory
  • Shortness of breath
  • Gastrointestinal disturbance
  • Unexplained tiredness
  • Dizziness and lightheadedness
  • Nosebleeds
  • Palpitations
  • Chest pain or discomfort
  • Nausea

Causes and Risk Factors

High blood pressure is one of the most common health conditions in the world. It can lead to heart disease, stroke, and kidney failure.

High blood pressure is caused by a variety of factors including:

  • Genetics, which may mean that you will have a higher risk for hypertension than others
  • Certain medical conditions such as kidney disease or diabetes
  • Lack of physical activity
  • Poor diet
  • Obesity

Other factors include:

  • Smoking
  • Lack of exercise
  • Sedentary lifestyle
  • Stress
  • Alcohol consumption

High blood pressure is a common medical condition that many people suffer from. It can lead to heart disease and stroke, which are the most common causes of death in the world.

The leading cause of high blood pressure is obesity, which is linked with other factors like diabetes and high cholesterol.


There are many ways to diagnose high blood pressure. You may be asked about your symptoms and medical history and given a physical exam. Your doctor may also recommend certain tests, such as a urine test or an ECG (electrocardiogram).


High blood pressure is a condition that can be treated with lifestyle changes, medications and surgery. A person should first consult their doctor to find out what the best treatment for high blood pressure is.

There are many treatments for high blood pressure. Some are used to lower high blood pressure, while others are used to prevent it from getting worse.

The most common treatments for high blood pressure include:

Lifestyle changes:

The lifestyle change of high blood pressure can be achieved by:

  • Eating healthy
  • Taking regular exercise
  • Weight loss
  • Increased physical activity
  • Reducing sodium intake

Dietary Principle

Low calorie, low fat, low sodium with normal protein intake is prescribed.


These can include beta blockers, ACE inhibitors, calcium channel blockers, diuretics, and ARBs. Angiotensin receptor blockers are medications that block the action of angiotensin, which is a hormone involved in the body’s response to high blood pressure.


Surgery for high blood pressure is an effective treatment for those who have uncontrolled high blood pressure, but it does come with some risks. One risk is that the procedure may not work as well as other treatments, such as medication, in lowering your blood pressure. Another risk is that you will need to take more medications to control your symptoms after the procedure than you would have needed before the operation.

On the other hand, there are many benefits to this type of treatment: it may lower your risk of stroke or heart attack; it may help you lose weight; and it may improve how well your kidneys work, which in turn could mean fewer dialysis treatments in the future.


High blood pressure is a condition that can lead to serious complications. It is important to understand the risks of high blood pressure so that it can be controlled. The following are the complications of high blood pressure:

Cardiovascular disease: The build-up of plaque and cholesterol on the arterial walls can cause narrowing of arteries and subsequent blockages. This has been linked to high blood pressure.

Kidney disease: Damage is done to the kidneys by high blood pressure, which can lead to chronic kidney failure or end-stage renal disease with kidney grafting.

Stroke: Being at risk for a stroke due to high blood pressure has been known since the 1960s, showing that this is a serious complication of high blood pressure.


High blood pressure is also known as hypertension, and it refers to the amount of pressure that builds up in your arteries. You may not know that you have high blood pressure until it causes problems like heart disease or stroke. The good news is that high blood pressure can usually be managed with lifestyle changes, such as quitting smoking, reducing salt intake, and exercising more often.

You should talk to your doctor about treatment options for high blood pressure if you have been diagnosed with the condition or are experiencing symptoms of high blood pressure.