Chronic Kidney Disease: Types, Symptoms, Causes, Treatment and Diagnosis

Chronic Kidney Disease is a condition in which the kidneys do not function properly. In this case, the kidneys are not able to filter wastes from the blood as well as they should be. This leads to serious health problems. Chronic kidney disease can be caused by many factors, including diabetes, high blood pressure, and high cholesterol.

The kidneys are two bean-shaped organs that filter wastes and extra water from the blood. The filtered liquid is called urine and it contains important substances that the body needs to stay healthy. If the kidneys lose their ability to work properly, they cannot remove wastes and extra water from the blood. This can lead to a buildup of fluids in the body (edema) and other medical problems such as high blood pressure or anemia.

This article is about the risk factors of Chronic Kidney Disease. It talks about what causes the disease, and what are its symptoms. People who are at a high risk for this disease should be aware of the symptoms and talk to their doctor if they experience any.

What is Chronic Kidney Disease?

Chronic Kidney Disease is a condition that occurs when there is a gradual loss of kidney function over time. It can be caused by many factors, including diabetes, high blood pressure and genetics.

The kidneys are the organs responsible for filtering out waste products from the blood and producing urine. When they don’t work as well as they should, it causes a buildup of these waste products in the blood. This can lead to serious complications such as high blood pressure and heart disease.

The kidneys are also responsible for maintaining electrolyte levels in the body, so if they stop working properly, it can cause problems with muscle control and make you feel tired or weak all the time.

There are three stages of Chronic Kidney Disease:

Stage 1: Mild chronic kidney disease may cause no symptoms.

Stage 2: Moderate chronic kidney disease may cause a feeling of tiredness, nausea, vomiting, poor appetite and increased thirst.

Stage 3: Severe chronic kidney disease will have symptoms like confusion, muscle cramps and seizures.


There are four types of chronic kidney disease:

  • Type 1 or IgA nephropathy: Type 1 is caused by a person’s immune system attacking the body’s own cells.
  • Type 2 or glomerulonephritis: Type 2 is caused by inflammation of the glomeruli.
  • Type 3 or chronic interstitial nephritis: Type 3 is caused by inflammation of the tubules that line the kidneys.
  • Type 4 or polycystic kidney disease: Type 4 is a genetic disorder that causes cysts to form in the kidneys and other organs.

Signs and Symptoms

Chronic Kidney Disease is a progressive disease in which the kidneys are damaged and cannot filter waste products from the body. A person with chronic kidney disease may not have any symptoms for years. But, as the disease progresses, they may experience these symptoms:

  • Nausea
  • Vomiting
  • Confusion or agitation
  • Fever
  • Swollen ankles
  • Fatigue
  • Anemia
  • Gout
  • Feeling tired all the time
  • Changes in appetite
  • Decreased or Increased urination
  • Fluid and electrolyte imbalances
  • Muscle cramps or weakness

When to see a doctor?

Chronic Kidney Disease (CKD) is a condition in which the kidneys are not able to remove waste and extra fluid from the body.

The most common symptom of CKD is an increase in the amount of protein in your urine. This can also be caused by other medical conditions, so it’s important to see your doctor if you have any concerns or symptoms.

A person with CKD should see their doctor at least once a year, or more often if they have symptoms like increased blood pressure, increased heart rate, or swelling in the feet and ankles.


Chronic Kidney Disease is a health condition that causes the kidneys to gradually lose their function. This can lead to serious kidney damage and even death.

“The cause of Chronic Kidney Disease is unknown.” But there are many possible causes of Chronic Kidney Disease. These include:

There are many causes of CKD, including family history of kidney disease. It is important to understand the different types of CKD so you can get the right treatment for your specific condition.

Risk Factors

CKD is a serious condition that can lead to kidney failure. It develops when the kidneys are not able to filter the blood and remove waste from it as well as they should. This can happen for many reasons, such as diabetes, high blood pressure, and certain types of cancer.

There are many risk factors for CKD, including:

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Ethnicity/race
  • Family history of CKD or other chronic diseases related to kidney function, such as
    • High blood pressure
    • Diabetes mellitus type 2 (DM2) or type 1 (DM1)
  • Alcohol consumption
  • Smoking
  • Obesity
  • Low physical activity

The risk factors of chronic kidney disease (CKD) are the things that increase a person’s chance of developing it.


Chronic kidney disease is diagnosed through tests that measure how well your kidneys are working. It can be diagnosed with a blood test, urine test, and through imaging tests. A person may not have any symptoms of chronic kidney disease for years before it is detected.

The first step in diagnosing chronic kidney disease is to find out if the patient has protein in their urine or if they have an abnormal creatinine level. If the patient does not show any signs of proteinuria or elevated creatinine levels, then they will need to get an ultrasound and a CT scan of their kidneys done.


Chronic kidney disease is a condition in which the kidneys do not work as they should. Treatment for chronic kidney disease can take many forms, but it’s important to find the form that works best for you.

Treatment may include medicines or surgery to remove part of one or both of your kidneys. The most severe form of chronic kidney disease is end-stage renal disease (ESRD). People with ESRD may be on dialysis, a machine that replaces the kidneys’ function by filtering out waste products in the blood.

In some cases, patients may be able to manage their chronic kidney disease with a few lifestyle changes such as eating healthier and drinking more fluids. However, if this is not enough or if your symptoms worsen, you may need to undergo surgery or go on dialysis treatments.

Lifestyle changes:

Lifestyle changes for chronic kidney disease is a serious condition that can lead to other health problems.

People with chronic kidney disease should follow the below lifestyle changes:

  • Maintain a healthy diet and avoid high-salt, high-protein, and high-potassium foods.
  • Limit fluid intake to less than 2 liters per day.
  • Avoid or limit alcohol consumption.
  • Take prescribed medications as instructed by their doctor.
  • Reduce stress levels.
  • Exercise at least 30 minutes of daily moderate to vigorous physical activity.

Learn more about: Diet for Chronic Kidney Disease


Dialysis is a process which removes waste and extra fluid from the blood. It is performed by artificially removing the kidneys’ function of filtering out these things.

There are two types of dialysis: Peritoneal dialysis and hemodialysis. The most common type of dialysis is hemodialysis, which involves cleansing the blood through an artificial kidney machine.

With hemodialysis, a patient’s blood flows outside of their body to be cleaned, then flows back into their body.


A surgical procedure called a nephrectomy is a treatment option for people with chronic kidney disease who have reached end-stage renal failure (ESRF). A nephrectomy removes one or both of the kidneys from your body, which will stop your kidneys from working. This surgery may be done as an open surgery or as minimally invasive laparoscopic surgery.

The benefits of a nephrectomy include:

  • Ending dialysis treatments
  • Removing the need for multiple hospitalizations

According to the National Kidney Foundation, nephrectomy may be a possible option for people who are not able to get enough dialysis treatments and who are not expected to live long enough to undergo kidney transplantation.


There are two types of medications used to treat CKD: Diuretics and ACE inhibitors.

Diuretics: These are the drugs that help remove extra fluid from the body by reducing the amount of water in urine. They work by increasing the volume of urine produced by blocking the reabsorption of water in the kidneys.

ACE inhibitors: There are two ACE inhibitors, Captopril and Enalapril, both administered orally. These drugs were shown to lower blood pressure without the side effects of thiazide diuretics which can cause electrolyte imbalance and hypokalemia. ACE inhibitors block this action, as well as proteinuria and left ventricular hypertrophy which can lead to heart failure.


Chronic kidney disease is a progressive disease that leads to the gradual loss of kidney function. The kidneys work to filter blood and remove waste products from the body. They also help balance fluids, electrolytes, and other nutrients in the body. In chronic kidney disease, these functions are slowly lost over time.

The person may need to take medications that help with blood pressure and protein metabolism. They may be given a clean diet, limit dietary sodium intake, take potassium supplements, and make sure their body is getting sufficient hydration.