Type 2 Diabetes: Causes, Symptoms, Treatment, Diet and Tips
June 15, 2022 | by Yashaswi Pathakamuri | Posted in Diabetes, Diseases
Type 2 diabetes is a long-term condition that occurs when the body can’t produce enough insulin or can’t use insulin properly. Type 2 diabetes is also known as non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). The number of people with type 2 diabetes has been increasing dramatically over the last few decades, and it’s now one of the most common chronic diseases around the world.
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that is characterized by high blood sugar levels, which can cause several symptoms and potentially lead to serious complications. Type 2 diabetes develops when the body becomes resistant to insulin or when the pancreas does not produce enough insulin. Type 2 diabetes can be controlled by diet, exercise, and medications.
The risk factors for type 2 diabetes are not well understood, but it’s thought that genetics and lifestyle may both be involved in this disease.
Causes of Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition and the most common form of diabetes. It is caused by the body’s inability to produce insulin or use it properly. It accounts for about 95% of all cases. It usually develops gradually over time, but can also be the result of obesity or being overweight.
Type 2 diabetes can lead to serious health problems such as heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney failure, and amputation of limbs.
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that affects the way the body metabolizes sugar. It can be caused due to genetics, obesity, and other factors like diet, lifestyle and exercise.
The risk factors for type 2 diabetes are:
1) Genetics: If you have a family history of type 2 diabetes then you are at an increased risk for developing this condition.
2) Obesity: Being obese or overweight increases your chances of developing type 2 diabetes.
3) Diet: Eating too much sugar can lead to a buildup of glucose in your bloodstream and increase your chance of developing type 2 diabetes.
4) Lifestyle: Being overweight or obese, lack of physical activity, and poor diet can lead to type 2 diabetes.
5)Exercising: People who are inactive or don’t exercise or work out regularly have an increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes.
Type 2 diabetes is a disease that affects the way the body uses glucose. It is caused by the inability of the body to use insulin, which leads to high levels of glucose in the blood.
Symptoms of Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic condition that affects how the body breaks down and uses glucose. This is a condition in which the body does not produce enough insulin or cannot use insulin properly. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes vary and depend on many factors like the person’s age, health, and diet.
Type 2 diabetes is often called “adult-onset” because it usually develops in adulthood and it is more common among adults than children. This type of diabetes usually develops gradually over time, but can also happen quickly after an infection or injury.
Type 2 diabetes can develop slowly. The symptoms of type 2 diabetes can vary from person to person. and may be mild and easy to dismiss at first. The early symptoms may include:
- Increased thirst
- Frequent urination
- Extreme hunger
- Lack of energy
- Unexplained weight loss or weight gain
- Blurred vision
- Tiredness or weakness
- Slow healing of cuts/wounds
- Tingling/numbness in hands and feet
- feeling very thirsty even after drinking a lot of water
As the disease progresses, the symptoms become more severe and can cause some potentially dangerous complications.
If your blood glucose levels have been high for a long time, the complications can include:
- Eye problems (diabetic retinopathy)
- Feelings of numbness in your extremities, or neuropathy
- Kidney disease (nephropathy)
- Gum disease
- Heart attack or stroke
Treatment for Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes is a chronic disease that affects the way your body processes sugar. It occurs when the pancreas doesn’t produce enough insulin or when the body can’t make proper use of insulin.
Diabetes can cause serious complications over time, including heart disease and stroke, kidney failure, blindness, and lower-limb amputations.
Type 2 diabetes can be managed, and sometimes reversed. Usually, you’ll only need to check your blood glucose levels with a finger prick, but don’t worry you might not have to do it as often as checking your email. The goal is to stay within the desired range; get a strategy from your doctor.
There are various treatments available for type 2 diabetes and they vary in effectiveness depending on the person. The treatment will depend on the severity of the condition and risk factors.
The treatment of type 2 diabetes can be done through lifestyle changes, diet, exercise, medications, surgery, or a combination of these treatments.
Medications for Type 2 Diabetes
Type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) is a chronic metabolic disorder that is characterized by a defect in insulin secretion and/or action, resulting in hyperglycemia. The treatment of T2DM typically includes lifestyle modifications, oral medications and insulin therapy. The primary goal of these treatments is to control hyperglycemia and prevent or delay the onset of micro- and macrovascular complications.
The medications for T2DM are classified into three major categories:
- Oral hypoglycemic agents are the first line treatment for T2DM. They work by lowering blood glucose levels through increasing glucose uptake from the bloodstream into body cells or decreasing glucose production by the liver. But they often have side effects such as severe low blood sugar, irregular heartbeat and weight gain. To avoid these side effects, a person with T2DM may need to take insulin injections or multiple oral medications.
- Insulin therapy is used when oral agents fail to control blood sugar levels.
- Other drugs used for T2DM treatment include thiazolidinediones (TZD), alpha-glucosidase inhibitors and incretin mimetics.
In some cases, lifestyle changes are enough to keep type 2 diabetes under control. If not, there are several medications that may help. Some of these medications include:
- Metformin: Metformin is one of the most widely used drugs for type 2 diabetes. It lowers blood sugar levels in people with type 2 diabetes. It does this by making the body’s cells more sensitive to insulin, which helps move sugar from the blood into cells. It has been proven to reduce both high blood sugar and weight gain.
- Sulfonylureas: Sulfonylureas are a class of drugs used to control blood sugar in type 2 diabetes. This drug is taken by mouth and used as an adjunct to diet and exercise. Sulfonylureas work by stimulating the pancreas to release more insulin, either directly or indirectly, by blocking production of a certain hormone that tells the pancreas not to release so much insulin. It is also used in people with type 1 diabetes who can’t make enough insulin on their own.
- Thiazolidinediones: Thiazolidinediones can be used to treat type 2 diabetes. They work by increasing insulin sensitivity, which helps the body use glucose more efficiently.
- Glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists: Glucagon-like peptide-1 agonists are a new class of drugs that stimulates insulin secretion. It stimulate insulin secretion and are used to treat type 2 diabetes. They can be administered in two ways: either by injection or by a nasal spray.
- Meglitinides: Meglitinides are a type of oral medication used to treat type 2 diabetes. They work by making the pancreas secrete more insulin, which leads to lower blood sugar levels.
- They are usually taken once a day and have minimal side effects. Meglitinides also don’t cause weight gain and can be used by people who are pregnant or breastfeeding.
- Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors: Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 (DPP-4) inhibitors are a class of drugs that decrease the production of the hormone glucagon and slows down the emptying of stomach contents into the small intestine.
- This is done by blocking an enzyme called DPP-4, which is present in pancreatic beta cells. This enzyme is responsible for breaking down hormones called incretins, which are important for regulating blood sugar levels.
- Sodium-glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors: Sodium-glucose Cotransporter-2 (SGLT2) Inhibitors are a new class of drugs that have been approved by the FDA to treat type 2 diabetes. The SGLT2 inhibitors work by blocking the reabsorption of glucose in the kidneys, which leads to increased insulin release and improved blood sugar control. The most common side effects associated with SGLT2 inhibitors are urinary tract infections, genital yeast infections, and low blood pressure.
Each type of medication listed above can cause side effects. It may take some time for you and your doctor to find the best medication or combination of medications to treat your diabetes. If your blood pressure or cholesterol levels are also not ideal, you may need medications to address those needs as well.
If your body can’t make enough insulin, you may need to receive insulin therapy. You may only need one long-acting injection at night, or you might have to take insulin several times throughout the day.
Diet for Type 2 Diabetes
Diabetes is a metabolic disorder characterized by high blood sugar levels over a prolonged period. Type 2 diabetes is the most common type of diabetes, which can be managed with diet changes and exercise.
The following three factors are important when it comes to managing type 2 diabetes:
- Eating healthy food
- Exercising regularly
- Maintaining a healthy weight
- physically active
Some foods are better for people with type 2 diabetes than others. Some of the best foods for people with type 2 diabetes are whole grains, vegetables, fruits, and low-fat dairy products. These foods will help keep blood sugar levels steady throughout the day and provide nutrients that are important for overall health.
Foods to choose
Type 2 diabetes is a condition in which your body can’t use insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone that helps glucose, or sugar, get into your cells.
The foods you eat can affect how well you control your blood sugar levels and reduce the risk of complications. The following are some foods to choose for type 2 diabetes:
- Oysters: Oysters are rich in zinc and protein which help to balance blood sugar levels. They also contain omega-3 fatty acids that protect against heart disease, one of the complications of type 2 diabetes.
- Avocado: Avocado is rich in potassium which helps regulate blood pressure, another complication of type 2 diabetes. It also contains fibre and healthy fats that help to keep blood sugar levels under control.
- Eggs: Eggs are rich in protein that helps to keep blood sugar levels under control. They also contain choline which helps to lower blood cholesterol levels, another complication of type 2 diabetes.
- Fish: Fish is rich in omega-3 fatty acids, selenium, and protein which help to prevent complications such as heart disease and stroke.
- Garlic: Garlic contains a compound that has been shown to lower blood cholesterol levels, another complication of type 2 diabetes.
- Beets: Beets are rich in fibre, a compound shown to help lower blood cholesterol levels in people with type 2 diabetes.
- Broccoli: Broccoli is a rich source of beta carotene, which helps maintain healthy skin. It’s also high in fibre, which can help prevent constipation and regulate the digestive system.
- Figs: Figs are high in fibre and contain plenty of vitamin C, potassium, and manganese. They may also lower blood pressure and help prevent some diseases.
- Asparagus: Asparagus is high in vitamin K, an important nutrient which is associated with healthy bones, skin, and hair. It’s also rich in fibre.
- Lentils: Lentils are a good source of folic acid, which helps prevent heart disease and stroke by reducing the risk of blood clots. Lentils are also a good source of fibre and iron.
Foods to avoid
Diabetes is a chronic disease that affects the body’s ability to make or respond to insulin, which is a hormone that controls blood sugar. Type 2 diabetes is the most common form of diabetes.
People with type 2 diabetes should avoid foods high in fat, sugar and refined carbohydrates. Examples of such foods include:
- Sugary drinks, including soft drinks and fruit juices
- Pastries, cakes and other desserts containing large amounts of sugar
- White bread, white rice and other refined grains containing large amounts of carbs
Talk with your doctor about your personal nutrition goals. They may recommend you connect with a dietician who’s well-versed in optimal diets for diabetes. Together, you can come up with a diet plan that tastes great and suits your lifestyle needs.
Additional lifestyle changes your doctor will most likely advise to help treat your type 2 diabetes include:
- Eating foods rich in fiber and healthy carbohydrates – eating fruits, vegetables, and whole grains can help keep your blood glucose levels steady
- Eating at regular intervals
- Learning to listen to your body and learn to stop eating when you’re full
- Manage your weight and keep your heart healthy, which typically means keeping refined carbohydrates, sweets, and animal fats to a minimum
- Get about half an hour of physical activity daily to help keep your heart healthy, as exercise can help to control blood glucose, too.
Your doctor will explain how to recognize the early symptoms of blood sugar that’s too high or too low and what to do in each situation.
Additionally, working with a dietician can help you learn which foods can help you manage your blood sugar and which ones might cause it to become unbalanced.
Not everyone with type 2 diabetes needs to use insulin. If you do, it’s because your pancreas isn’t making enough insulin on its own, and it’s crucial that you take insulin as directed. There are other prescription medications that may help as well.
Type 2 diabetes is a metabolic disorder that occurs when the body does not produce enough insulin or when the cells do not react to insulin. This leads to high blood sugar levels and this can cause serious health problems like heart disease, stroke, blindness, kidney failure, and more.
It usually begins with an inability to control blood sugar levels, a condition called impaired glucose tolerance (IGT), and progresses to type 2 diabetes over a period of years.
The National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases (NIDDK) estimates that about 25% of the U.S. population has prediabetes—a condition characterized by higher-than-normal blood sugar levels that are not high enough for a diagnosis.
Type 2 diabetes can be managed and even reversed with certain lifestyle changes. For more severe cases, medication is available.
If you’ve been diagnosed with type 2 diabetes, talk with your doctor about developing a treatment plan that works for your lifestyle.
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