Mineral Nutrition class 11 notes

Here are some notes on Mineral Nutrition for Class 11:

  1. Definition: Mineral nutrition refers to the uptake and utilization of minerals by plants. Plants require a variety of mineral elements for growth, development, and reproduction.
  2. Essential Mineral Elements: Plants require 17 essential mineral elements, which are classified into two categories based on their requirement levels: a. Macronutrients: These are required in large quantities (in the range of 1-10 mmol/g of dry matter) and include nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium, calcium, magnesium, and sulfur. b. Micronutrients: These are required in small quantities (in the range of ╬╝mol/g of dry matter) and include iron, manganese, zinc, copper, molybdenum, boron, chlorine, and nickel.
  3. Deficiency Symptoms: The deficiency symptoms of mineral elements in plants can be observed through changes in growth, color, and morphology of plants. For example, nitrogen deficiency can result in stunted growth and yellowing of leaves, while iron deficiency can cause chlorosis (yellowing) of leaves.
  4. Mineral Uptake: Plants absorb mineral elements through their roots in the form of ions. The process of ion uptake is facilitated by carrier proteins and ion channels. The uptake of different mineral elements is regulated by various factors such as pH, temperature, and the presence of other ions.
  5. Mineral Transport: After uptake, minerals are transported throughout the plant via the xylem and phloem. The xylem carries water and minerals from the roots to the shoots, while the phloem transports organic compounds and minerals from the leaves to other parts of the plant.
  6. Mineral Interactions: The uptake and utilization of mineral elements are interdependent. For example, the uptake of potassium is inhibited by high levels of calcium, while the uptake of iron is inhibited by high levels of zinc.
  7. Mineral Absorption by Symbiotic Associations: Some plants have symbiotic associations with fungi or bacteria that help them absorb mineral elements from the soil. For example, legumes have nodules on their roots that contain nitrogen-fixing bacteria, which convert atmospheric nitrogen into a form that the plant can use.
  8. Mineral Deficiencies in Humans: Humans also require mineral elements for growth and development. Deficiencies in certain mineral elements can lead to health problems. For example, iron deficiency can cause anemia, while calcium deficiency can lead to osteoporosis.
  9. Mineral Supplements: Mineral supplements can be used to treat mineral deficiencies in both plants and humans. However, excessive intake of certain mineral supplements can be toxic and lead to health problems.