What Causes Lower Abdominal Pain in Females not Pregnant?

Lower abdominal pain in females who are not pregnant can have various causes, some of which are specific to the female reproductive system and others that are related to other organs in the abdomen. Some common causes include:

  • Menstrual Pain: During menstruation, some women experience lower abdominal pain, cramping, and discomfort due to the contractions of the uterine muscles.
  • Ovulation Pain: Some women experience mild lower abdominal pain during ovulation, which is known as mittelschmerz.
  • Urinary Tract Infections (UTIs): Infections of the urinary tract, such as cystitis (bladder infection) or urethritis (infection of the urethra), can cause lower abdominal pain, frequent urination, and a burning sensation during urination.
  • Pelvic Inflammatory Disease (PID): PID is an infection of the female reproductive organs, often caused by sexually transmitted infections. It can lead to lower abdominal pain, fever, and abnormal vaginal discharge.
  • Ovarian Cysts: Fluid-filled sacs that form on the ovaries can sometimes cause lower abdominal pain, especially if they rupture or become twisted (ovarian torsion).
  • Endometriosis: Endometriosis is a condition in which the tissue that lines the uterus grows outside the uterus, leading to pelvic pain, including lower abdominal pain.
  • Gastrointestinal Issues: Conditions like irritable bowel syndrome (IBS), constipation, inflammatory bowel disease (IBD), and gastrointestinal infections can cause lower abdominal pain.
  • Urinary Stones: Stones in the kidneys or urinary tract can cause pain in the lower abdomen, back, or sides.
  • Ovarian or Uterine Fibroids: Non-cancerous growths in the ovaries or uterus can cause pelvic pain, including lower abdominal pain.
  • Gynecological Conditions: Conditions like adenomyosis, pelvic congestion syndrome, and uterine or ovarian tumors can cause lower abdominal pain.
  • Muscular or Skeletal Issues: Strained muscles, hernias, or issues with the spine or pelvis can sometimes cause lower abdominal pain.
  • Appendicitis: Although less common, inflammation of the appendix (appendicitis) can lead to lower right abdominal pain.
  • Interstitial Cystitis: A chronic condition that causes bladder pain and discomfort, leading to lower abdominal pain.

If you are experiencing persistent or severe lower abdominal pain, it is crucial to seek medical evaluation by a healthcare professional. They will conduct a thorough assessment, which may include a physical examination, medical history review, and possibly imaging or laboratory tests to determine the underlying cause and provide appropriate treatment. Early diagnosis and management are essential to address the underlying condition and alleviate symptoms.