Cancer: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment and Vaccine

Cancer is a broad term used to describe a group of diseases characterized by the abnormal growth and proliferation of cells in the body. Normally, cells in the body grow, divide, and eventually die in a controlled manner as part of the body’s natural processes. However, in the case of cancer, this orderly process is disrupted.

Cancer begins when genetic mutations occur within the DNA of cells. These mutations can lead to the cells growing and dividing uncontrollably, forming a mass of abnormal cells called a tumor. Not all tumors are cancerous, though. Benign tumors are non-cancerous and do not spread to other parts of the body. On the other hand, malignant tumors are cancerous and can invade nearby tissues and spread to distant parts of the body through a process called metastasis.


There are over 100 different types of cancer, which can originate in various organs or tissues of the body. Each type of cancer has unique characteristics, including its growth pattern, response to treatment, and potential for spreading.

Here are some of the most common types of cancer:

  • Breast Cancer: Breast cancer forms in the breast tissue, usually in the milk ducts or lobules. It predominantly affects women but can also occur in men.
  • Lung Cancer: Lung cancer develops in the lungs, typically in the cells lining the air passages. It is strongly associated with smoking but can also occur in non-smokers due to other factors like exposure to secondhand smoke or environmental pollutants.
  • Colorectal Cancer: Colorectal cancer affects the colon or rectum. It usually begins as small growths called polyps, which can become cancerous over time.
  • Prostate Cancer: Prostate cancer develops in the prostate gland, a small gland in men that produces seminal fluid. It is the most common cancer in men and often grows slowly.
  • Skin Cancer: Skin cancer includes various types, with the three primary types being basal cell carcinoma, squamous cell carcinoma, and melanoma. Skin cancer usually develops as a result of exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation from the sun or tanning beds.
  • Leukemia: Leukemia is a cancer of the blood and bone marrow, where abnormal white blood cells are produced. It affects the body’s ability to produce healthy blood cells.
  • Lymphoma: Lymphoma refers to cancers that begin in the lymphatic system, which is part of the body’s immune system. There are two main types of lymphoma: Hodgkin lymphoma and non-Hodgkin lymphoma.
  • Ovarian Cancer: Ovarian cancer affects the ovaries, which are part of the female reproductive system. It is often challenging to detect in its early stages and is the most deadly gynecologic cancer.
  • Pancreatic Cancer: Pancreatic cancer originates in the pancreas, an organ that produces digestive enzymes and hormones. It is often diagnosed at an advanced stage and has a high mortality rate.
  • Bladder Cancer: Bladder cancer occurs in the bladder, the organ that stores urine. It typically begins in the cells lining the bladder and may cause symptoms like blood in the urine.

These are just a few examples of the many types of cancer. Each type can have different subtypes, and there are also rare types of cancer that affect specific organs or tissues. It’s important to remember that early detection, prompt medical attention, and personalized treatment plans are crucial in managing and treating different types of cancer.


The symptoms of cancer can vary widely depending on the type, stage, and location of the cancer. Some types of cancer may not cause noticeable symptoms in the early stages, while others may present with more obvious signs. Here are some general symptoms that may be associated with cancer:

  • Unexplained Weight Loss: Significant and unexplained weight loss without changes in diet or exercise can be a potential symptom of various types of cancer.
  • Fatigue: Persistent and unexplained fatigue, weakness, or exhaustion that does not improve with rest can be a symptom of cancer.
  • Pain: Persistent or worsening pain, especially if it is not related to a known injury or condition, should be evaluated by a healthcare professional. Cancer-related pain can vary in intensity and location, depending on the type and stage of cancer.
  • Changes in the Skin: Skin changes, such as the development of new moles or skin growths, changes in the color or size of existing moles, or changes in the appearance of the skin, may be signs of certain types of skin cancer.
  • Changes in Bowel or Bladder Habits: Persistent changes in bowel or bladder habits, such as blood in the stool or urine, changes in bowel movements (e.g., diarrhea or constipation), or increased frequency or urgency of urination, should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.
  • Persistent Cough or Hoarseness: A persistent cough that doesn’t go away or worsens over time, hoarseness, or voice changes may be signs of lung, throat, or other types of cancer.
  • Lumps or Thickening: Unexplained lumps or thickening in the breast, testicles, lymph nodes, or other parts of the body should be evaluated by a healthcare professional.
  • Difficulty Swallowing: Difficulty or pain while swallowing, persistent indigestion, or heartburn can be symptoms of certain gastrointestinal or esophageal cancers.
  • Changes in Menstrual Cycle: Unusual bleeding or discharge, changes in menstrual cycle patterns, or postmenopausal bleeding in women may be signs of gynecological cancers.
  • Persistent Fever: Fevers that persist without an obvious cause or infection can sometimes be a sign of certain types of cancer, such as lymphoma.

It’s important to note that these symptoms can also be caused by conditions other than cancer. However, if you experience any persistent or unexplained symptoms that concern you, it’s always best to consult with a healthcare professional for a proper evaluation and diagnosis.

Causes and Risk Factors

The development of cancer is often multifactorial, involving a combination of genetic, environmental, and lifestyle factors. Here are some of the common causes and risk factors associated with cancer:

1. Genetic Factors:

Certain inherited gene mutations can increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer. These mutations can be passed down through generations and make individuals more susceptible to developing cancer. Examples of inherited gene mutations include BRCA1 and BRCA2 mutations associated with breast and ovarian cancer.

2. Environmental Exposures:

Exposure to certain environmental factors can increase the risk of developing cancer. These can include exposure to harmful chemicals, such as tobacco smoke, asbestos, benzene, formaldehyde, and certain industrial chemicals. Additionally, long-term exposure to environmental pollutants, radiation (including ionizing radiation from medical imaging or radiation therapy), and some occupational hazards can contribute to the development of cancer.

  • Lifestyle Choices: Certain lifestyle choices can increase the risk of developing cancer. These include:
  • Tobacco Use: Smoking tobacco, as well as exposure to secondhand smoke, is strongly linked to various types of cancer, including lung, throat, mouth, esophageal, and bladder cancer.
  • Unhealthy Diet: A diet high in processed foods, red meat, and unhealthy fats, and low in fruits, vegetables, and whole grains, can contribute to an increased risk of certain cancers.
  • Lack of Physical Activity: Leading a sedentary lifestyle and not engaging in regular physical activity can be a risk factor for certain cancers.
  • Excessive Alcohol Consumption: Heavy and regular alcohol consumption has been linked to an increased risk of several types of cancer, including liver, breast, and colorectal cancer.

3. Infections:

Some infections are known to increase the risk of certain cancers. For example, chronic infection with hepatitis B or C viruses can lead to liver cancer. Human papillomavirus (HPV) infection is associated with cervical, anal, and some other types of cancer.

4. Age and Family History:

Advancing age is a significant risk factor for cancer. The risk of developing cancer tends to increase with age. Additionally, having a family history of certain types of cancer, especially in first-degree relatives (parents, siblings, children), can increase an individual’s risk of developing cancer.

It’s important to note that having one or more risk factors does not necessarily mean that an individual will develop cancer. Many people without any known risk factors can still develop cancer, while others with multiple risk factors may never develop the disease. Cancer is a complex disease, and its development is influenced by a combination of factors. Regular screenings, adopting a healthy lifestyle, and early detection can play a role in reducing the risk or detecting cancer at an early and treatable stage.


The diagnosis of cancer typically involves a series of steps to determine the presence, type, stage, and extent of the disease. Here are the common methods and tests used in the diagnosis of cancer:

  • Medical History and Physical Examination: The initial step in diagnosing cancer involves taking a detailed medical history and conducting a thorough physical examination. The healthcare professional will inquire about symptoms, risk factors, family history, and any relevant medical information.
  • Imaging Tests: Various imaging tests can help visualize the internal structures of the body and identify any abnormal growths or tumors. Common imaging techniques include:
    • X-ray: X-rays use low-dose radiation to create images of the body’s internal structures.
    • Computed Tomography (CT) Scan: CT scans combine X-rays and computer technology to produce detailed cross-sectional images of the body.
    • Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI): MRI uses powerful magnets and radio waves to create detailed images of the body’s organs and tissues.
    • Ultrasound: Ultrasound uses high-frequency sound waves to produce images of internal structures.
    • Positron Emission Tomography (PET) Scan: PET scans use a small amount of radioactive material to detect changes in the body’s metabolism and identify areas of abnormal cell activity.
  • Laboratory Tests: Laboratory tests may be conducted to analyze blood, urine, or other bodily fluids for markers that can indicate the presence of cancer. These tests can include complete blood count (CBC), blood chemistry tests, tumor marker tests, and genetic tests.
  • Biopsy: A biopsy is the removal of a small sample of tissue or cells for examination under a microscope. It is the most definitive method to diagnose cancer. There are different types of biopsies, such as needle biopsy, surgical biopsy, or endoscopic biopsy, depending on the location and accessibility of the suspected cancerous area.
  • Pathology and Histology: The biopsy samples obtained are sent to a laboratory for analysis by a pathologist. The pathologist examines the tissue samples under a microscope to determine if cancer cells are present and identifies the type and grade of the cancer. This information helps guide treatment decisions.
  • Genetic Testing: Genetic testing may be recommended in certain cases, especially when there is a suspicion of an inherited cancer syndrome. These tests can identify specific gene mutations that increase the risk of developing certain types of cancer.

Once a diagnosis of cancer is confirmed, further tests may be performed to determine the stage of the disease. Staging helps assess the extent of cancer spread and guides treatment decisions. Additional tests, such as bone scans, CT scans, MRI scans, or PET scans, may be done to evaluate the involvement of other parts of the body.


The treatment of cancer depends on various factors, including the type and stage of cancer, its location, the overall health of the individual, and their preferences. Cancer treatment often involves a combination of different modalities, and the goal is to eliminate or control the cancer, relieve symptoms, and improve quality of life. Here are some common treatment options for cancer:

Patient taking Chemptheraphy Treatment
  • Surgery: Surgery involves the removal of the cancerous tumor and surrounding tissues. It is often used for solid tumors that are localized and have not spread to other parts of the body. Surgical procedures may vary, ranging from minimally invasive techniques to more extensive operations, depending on the type and stage of cancer.
  • Radiation Therapy: Radiation therapy uses high-energy beams, such as X-rays or protons, to target and kill cancer cells. It can be delivered externally (external beam radiation) or internally (brachytherapy), depending on the type and location of the cancer. Radiation therapy may be used before surgery (neoadjuvant), after surgery (adjuvant), or as the primary treatment.
  • Chemotherapy: Chemotherapy refers to the use of drugs to kill or control cancer cells. These drugs can be administered orally or intravenously and enter the bloodstream to reach cancer cells throughout the body. Chemotherapy is often used to treat cancers that have spread to multiple sites or when surgery or radiation therapy is not sufficient to eliminate the cancer.
  • Immunotherapy: Immunotherapy aims to stimulate the body’s immune system to recognize and attack cancer cells. It can be achieved through various approaches, such as immune checkpoint inhibitors, CAR-T cell therapy, and therapeutic vaccines. Immunotherapy has shown promising results in treating certain types of cancer, including melanoma, lung cancer, and kidney cancer.
  • Targeted Therapy: Targeted therapy involves the use of drugs that specifically target cancer cells by interfering with specific molecules involved in cancer growth or progression. These drugs are designed to block the signals that promote cancer cell growth and survival while minimizing damage to healthy cells.
  • Hormone Therapy: Hormone therapy is used to treat cancers that are hormone-sensitive, such as breast cancer and prostate cancer. It involves blocking or interfering with hormones that promote the growth of cancer cells, either by using medications or by surgical removal of hormone-producing organs.
  • Stem Cell Transplantation: Stem cell transplantation, also known as bone marrow transplantation, may be used to treat certain types of cancer, particularly blood-related cancers like leukemia and lymphoma. It involves replacing damaged or destroyed bone marrow cells with healthy stem cells to restore the body’s ability to produce blood cells.
  • Palliative Care: Palliative care focuses on providing relief from symptoms, pain, and emotional distress associated with cancer, aiming to improve the quality of life for individuals with advanced or incurable cancer. Palliative care can be provided alongside curative treatments and can be beneficial at any stage of cancer.

The choice of treatment or combination of treatments will be determined by a multidisciplinary team of healthcare professionals, including oncologists, surgeons, radiation oncologists, and other specialists. They will consider the specific characteristics of the cancer, individual factors, and the individual’s preferences to develop a personalized treatment plan.

It’s important to note that cancer treatment is constantly evolving, and new therapies and approaches are being developed through ongoing research and clinical trials.


Cancer prevention involves adopting certain strategies and lifestyle choices that can help reduce the risk of developing cancer. While not all cancers can be prevented, these measures can significantly lower the likelihood of developing certain types of cancer. Here are some key cancer prevention strategies:

  • Avoid Tobacco
  • Maintain a Healthy Diet
  • Engage in Regular Physical Activity
  • Protect Your Skin from Sun Exposure
  • Practice Safe Sex and Get Vaccinated
  • Limit Alcohol Consumption
  • Get Regular Screenings and Check-ups
  • Reduce Exposure to Environmental Hazards
  • Be Mindful of Occupational Risks
  • Manage Stress and Prioritize Mental Health

Remember, cancer prevention is not a guarantee, but adopting these healthy habits and making informed lifestyle choices can significantly reduce the risk of developing certain types of cancer.


Vaccines play a crucial role in preventing certain types of cancers by protecting against infections that are known to increase the risk of developing cancer. Here are some vaccines that are specifically associated with cancer prevention:

  1. HPV Vaccine: The human papillomavirus (HPV) vaccine protects against several strains of HPV that are known to cause cervical, anal, vaginal, vulvar, penile, and oropharyngeal cancers. The vaccine is typically recommended for both males and females in their preteen years, but it can also be given up to age 26 for females and age 21 for males who haven’t been vaccinated earlier.
  2. Hepatitis B Vaccine: The hepatitis B vaccine helps prevent hepatitis B virus infection, which can lead to chronic liver infection and increase the risk of liver cancer. The vaccine is recommended for individuals at high risk of hepatitis B infection, including infants, healthcare workers, sexually active adults, and those with certain medical conditions.

In addition to cancer-specific vaccines, there are other vaccines that indirectly contribute to cancer prevention by reducing the risk of certain infections that are associated with cancer. For example:

  • Vaccines against Hepatitis C: While there is currently no vaccine for hepatitis C, advances in antiviral treatments have greatly improved outcomes for individuals with hepatitis C infection. Treating and curing hepatitis C infection can help prevent the long-term consequences, including liver damage and liver cancer.
  • Vaccines against Human Immunodeficiency Virus (HIV): HIV weakens the immune system, making individuals more susceptible to various infections, including certain types of cancer. By preventing HIV infection through safe practices and access to antiretroviral therapy, the risk of associated cancers can be significantly reduced.

It’s important to note that these vaccines are preventive measures and are most effective when administered before exposure to the respective viruses. They are typically included in routine immunization schedules, and it’s important to follow the recommendations of healthcare professionals regarding vaccine administration. They can provide guidance on the appropriate vaccines based on individual factors, such as age, sex, medical history, and risk factors. Vaccines are a valuable tool in cancer prevention and overall public health.


Cancer is a complex and diverse group of diseases characterized by the uncontrolled growth and spread of abnormal cells in the body. It can affect any organ or tissue and has the potential to be life-threatening. However, advancements in medical research and technology have led to significant improvements in cancer prevention, early detection, diagnosis, and treatment.

Regular communication with healthcare professionals, adherence to recommended screenings and preventive measures, and maintaining a positive support network can contribute to better outcomes and improved quality of life for individuals affected by cancer.