What is Blood Pressure? and It’s Causes and Types

Blood pressure is a vital sign that indicates the force of blood against the walls of the arteries. The pressure is important because it helps to keep your heart and lungs working properly. It is measured in millimeters of mercury (mmHg). It can be monitored in the doctor’s office or at home.

The main function of the heart is to pump blood throughout the body, but it also has an important role in regulating blood pressure. When your heart contracts, it squeezes and relaxes its valves and this causes a change in pressure within your veins. This change in pressure causes blood to flow back into your heart, which pumps it out again. If you have high or low blood pressure, then this system becomes less effective and you can experience symptoms like dizziness or fainting.

The word “pressure” comes from Latin, meaning to weigh or measure. It’s a measurement of the force exerted on the artery walls by blood as it circulates through them.

This article gives information everything you need to about blood pressure and it’s causes, types and diet.

What are the Causes of Blood Pressure?

The causes of blood pressure are numerous and can be classified as either primary or secondary.

Primary causes of blood pressure include:

  • Heart disease
  • Kidney disease
  • Liver disease
  • Obesity
  • Diabetes

Secondary causes of blood pressure include:

  • Physical stressors such as injury, surgery, or illness
  • Medications like diuretics, beta blockers, and ACE inhibitors
  • Tobacco is mentioned as causes of high blood pressure, but not one is listed as the cause.

How is blood pressure measured?

Blood pressure is measured by the force of the blood against the walls of the arteries. The pressure can be measured in two ways:

The first way is by a sphygmomanometer, which is an instrument that uses the force of air to inflate and deflate a cuff wrapped around the arm. The pressure inside the cuff causes blood to flow into the arm, increasing in volume when it is inflated and decreasing when it is deflated. This method has been used since 1918 and is still widely used today.

The second way to measure blood pressure is through an oscillometric device, which measures pulse rate and applies it to calculate blood pressure.


Blood pressure is classified as high or low depending on whether it falls into one of these categories:

High blood pressure (Hypertension) – 120/80 or above

Normal – less than 120/80

Low blood pressure (Hypotension) – less than 90

High Blood Pressure (Hypertension)

High blood pressure or hypertension is a condition where the force of blood against the walls of arteries is too high. It can lead to a heart attack or stroke.

High blood pressure can be due to many things, such as:

  • Heart disease, including coronary artery disease and valvular heart disease
  • Kidney disease, including nephritis and glomerulonephritis
  • Pregnancy
  • Aging
  • Smoking
  • Drinking too much alcohol
  • Obesity
  • Physical inactivity
  • Stress

High blood pressure can cause many different problems, including heart attack or stroke. It can also lead to other conditions, such as kidney disease.

If left untreated, high blood pressure can result in long-term complications and increase one’s risk of death by up to 50%.

Normal Blood Pressure

Normal blood pressure is usually defined as the systolic pressure of the arterial system that is between 90 and 140 mmHg and the diastolic pressure of the arterial system that is between 50 and 80 mmHg.

Normal blood pressure varies from person to person. There are different factors that determine it such as

  • Age
  • Gender
  • Ethnicity
  • Height
  • Weight etc.

Normal blood pressure is generally considered to be between 120/80 and 140/90 mmHg (millimetres of mercury).

Low Blood Pressure (Hypotension)

Low blood pressure, or hypotension, is a condition in which the force of blood flowing through your veins and arteries is too low. Low blood pressure is the pressure in your blood vessels when you are at rest. It is important to maintain low blood pressure because if it is too high, you could pass out.

It can be caused by many factors including:

  • Heart disease
  • Anesthesia
  • Shock
  • Dehydration
  • Diabetes
  • High altitudes
  • Anemia

Hypotension can be dangerous if left untreated and can lead to fainting, dizziness, and even death.

Types Blood Pressure

There are several types of blood pressure. It can be measured in three ways: systolic, diastolic, and mean. Systolic is the top number on your blood pressure reading. Diastolic is the bottom number on your reading and mean is the average of both numbers.

Systolic and Diastolic Pressure

Systolic pressure is the pressure in the arteries when they are at their maximum or when the blood enters the artery and it is when the heart contracts. Diastolic pressure is the pressure in the arteries when they are at their minimum or when the heart relaxes after it has contracted.

The systolic and diastolic pressures are used to measure blood flow through the heart. Systolic pressures are typically higher than diastolic pressures, but there can be exceptions.

When a person’s blood pressure rises to a certain level, it can lead to health problems such as heart attacks and strokes.

Systolic and diastolic pressures are important to know because they can help us figure out what’s wrong with our hearts.


Blood pressure can be measured in three ways:

1) Anerobic exercise stress test: This type of test measures your systolic and diastolic pressure while you exercise at a moderate intensity for at least 10 minutes.

2) Auscultation: This method uses stethoscope to listen to your pulse in order to determine your heart rate and calculate your systolic and diastolic pressures.

3) Blood Pressure Monitor: This device uses inflatable cuff with a gauge to measure your blood pressure without any physical contact with you.


Diet is an important factor in controlling blood pressure. A healthy diet can help to maintain a healthy blood pressure and prevent hypertension.

When it comes to diet, there are many different things that you should consider. Your blood pressure is one of the most important factors to take into account.

Diets for people with low blood pressure are quite different from those for people with high blood pressure. The diet for blood pressure includes a variety of foods that are low in salt and sodium.

There are plenty of foods that can help reduce your blood pressure. These include:

The diet for blood pressure is not just a matter of what you eat but how much you eat. Some people have high blood pressure due to the amount of salt in their diet. This can be remedied by reducing the amount of salt in your food and drink.

Some foods that are high in sodium, such as processed meats, can contribute to the high blood pressure levels that are seen in many people. A diet that includes lots of water and fruits can help to lower your blood pressure.


Blood pressure is the force of blood pushing against the walls of arteries as it flows through them. It is a measurement of how much pressure there is on the artery walls.

It can be measured in either millimeters of mercury or millimeters of Hg. The usual value for adults is 120/80 mmHg or 2/3rds of a liter per minute.

The diastolic blood pressure is the bottom number, and it measures the pressure when blood flows from heart to arteries. The systolic blood pressure is the top number, and it measures how much pressure there is on an artery during its contraction phase.

Remember that a single blood pressure reading doesn’t necessarily classify your health. An average of blood pressure readings taken over time is the most accurate.

That’s why it’s important to have your blood pressure taken by a healthcare professional at least once a year. You may need more frequent follow-ups if your readings are consistently elevated.