Multiple Sclerosis: Symptoms, Causes, Diagnosis, Treatment and Risk Factors

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease that affects the central nervous system, the brain and spinal cord. It is a progressive disease that causes a gradual loss of function in the brain and body over time. It is characterized by damage to the myelin sheath, which is a fatty layer that covers and protects nerve fibers.

Multiple sclerosis can lead to many symptoms such as difficulty with walking, muscle weakness, numbness, tingling sensations, vision problems and cognitive impairments.

Multiple sclerosis is one of the most common diseases in North America and Europe. It affects about 2 million people worldwide.

What is Multiple Sclerosis?

Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that affects the central nervous system. It can cause problems with vision, hearing, movement, and balance. MS is more common in women than men and it’s thought to be caused by an autoimmune reaction to the myelin sheath of nerve cells in the brain and spinal cord.

MS is a neurological condition caused by the immune system attacking and damaging the myelin sheath that surrounds and protects the nerve fibers. This allows inflammation to occur, which can ultimately lead to an impairment in your ability to focus.

Types of Multiple Sclerosis and Stages

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic autoimmune disease of the central nervous system that affects the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. There are four main types of MS:

  1. Relapsing-Remitting MS: It occurs when there are periods of remission or recovery from symptoms followed by periods of relapse with worsening disability.
  2. Primary Progressive MS: It is a progressive disease that affects the central nervous system. PPMS is a chronic illness that affects how the brain communicates with the body. Symptoms can vary from person to person, but in general, it can cause loss of muscle strength and coordination, fatigue and difficulty with walking or using hands and arms.
  3. Secondary Progressive MS: It usually affects people in their late 30s to early 60s with no history of MS. It’s a rare condition that affects the frontal and temporal lobes of the brain, which are responsible for memory, speech, and reasoning.
  4. Progressive Relapsing MS: It is a rare form of multiple sclerosis that affects the brain and spinal cord. It is more common in women than men.

There are also three stages of Multiple Sclerosis: Prodromal stage, clinical stage and post-clinical stage.

  • The prodromal stage usually lasts for 2 to 5 years with symptoms such as numbness in the limbs or fatigue.
  • The clinical stage which starts after 1 year from the start of symptoms and lasts for 3 to 10 years with worsening symptoms like difficulty speaking or walking.
  • The post-clinical stage which starts after 10 years from the start of symptoms and lasts for 20 years or more with milder symptoms like headache, tingling and slight weakness.

One of the common symptoms of M.S is muscle weakness that may lead to a mild form of paralysis among people with this disease.


Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that can cause damage to the myelin sheath of nerves in the brain and spinal cord. This damage interrupts the signal that travels along these nerves, which can lead to muscle weakness, fatigue, numbness or tingling sensations in arms or legs, poor coordination or balance problems, and difficulty walking.

The most common symptoms of multiple sclerosis are:

  • Blurred vision, double vision (diplopia)
  • Jerky movements of limbs (ataxia) or trunk (dystonia)
  • Slurred speech (dysarthria)
  • Impaired memory or concentration (amnesia)
  • Paralysis on one side of the body (hemiplegia)
  • Fatigue
  • Depression
  • Anxiety
  • Muscle weakness
  • Difficulty walking or climbing stairs
  • Trembling or shaking
  • Dizziness
  • Vertigo (a sensation of spinning or tilting)
  • Ringing in the ears
  • Imbalance or unsteadiness
  • Tingling in hands and feet or numbness in the hands and feet
  • Loss of balance or coordination with eye movements
  • Headache

Causes and Risk Factors of Multiple Sclerosis

Multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease of the central nervous system that affects the brain, spinal cord, and optic nerves. It is a progressive disease that affects how the body’s immune system attacks and damages the myelin sheath.

The causes and risk factors of multiple sclerosis are varied and are not well understood but they may include:

Age: Most people receive a diagnosis between the ages of 20 and 40 years.

Sex: Most forms of MS are twice as likely to affect women than men.

Genetic factors: Susceptibility may pass down in the genes, but scientists believe an environmental trigger is also necessary for MS to develop, even in people with specific genetic features.

Smoking: People who smoke appear to be more likely to develop MS. They also tend to have more lesions and brain shrinkage than non-smokers.

Infections: Exposure to viruses, such as Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) or mononucleosis, may increase a person’s risk of developing MS, but research has not shown a definite link. Other viruses that may play a role include human herpes virus type 6 (HHV6) and mycoplasma pneumonia.

Vitamin D deficiency: MS is more common among people who have less exposure to bright sunlight, which is necessary for the body to create vitamin D. Some experts think that low levels of vitamin D may affect the way the immune system works.

Vitamin B12 deficiency: The body uses vitamin B when it produces myelin. A lack of this vitamin may increase the risk of neurological diseases such as MS.

There is probably no single trigger for MS, but multiple factors may contribute.


The diagnosis of MS begins with a neurologist examining your medical history and performing a series of tests to rule out other possible diseases. These tests include an MRI or CT scan, blood tests, and an electroencephalogram (EEG).

The diagnosis process can take up to six months, but it can take years for symptoms to appear.


Multiple sclerosis causes problems with vision, speech, balance, muscle weakness and fatigue. While there is no cure for MS, treatment options are available to help manage symptoms and improve quality of life.

Treatment of Multiple sclerosis includes medication, physical therapy, rehabilitation therapies and lifestyle changes. In some cases, it might also include surgery or stem cell treatment.


Multiple Sclerosis is a progressive disease caused by inflammation and destruction of nerve fibers in the brain and spinal cord. The symptoms are varied but generally involve problems with vision, muscle weakness, coordination, balance, bladder control or sexual function.

There is a wide range of progression for MS and it is hard to predict what will happen for each individual, but most people do not experience severe disability.

Researchers are gaining insight about different MS risk factors and these findings may lead to better prediction and more effective treatment in the future.